Male fertility is an elaborate and complex procedure. To achieve pregnancy, you need to produce healthy sperm that need to be carried into the semen. The signs of infertility in men do not have sufficient sperm in the semen and its inability to move.

Fertility is an indication of the overall wellness of a man. Men who lead a healthy lifestyle produce healthy sperms. There are several causes of male infertility that range from physical problems, hormonal imbalances to behavioural problems. Here are some causes of infertility.

Infertility in Men

Lifestyle Habits

Some lifestyle habits that have a negative effect on male fertility are:

  • Smoking and alcohol consumption over time reduces sperm cell motility and sperm count. Men who smoke and drink have a lower sperm count than men who don’t smoke.
  • Extreme stress
  • Extremely intense exercises produce steroid hormones that result in testosterone deficiency
  • Usage of recreational drugs and marijuana for a long period
  • Not having adequate zinc and vitamin C in the diet
  • Anaemia and malnutrition
  • Very tight undergarments lead to reduced sperm production
  • Exposure to environmental hazards and toxins such as lead, pesticides, paint, radioactive substances, radiation, boron, benzene, mercury, and heavy metals
  • Sitting for extended periods, working on your laptop for long and wearing long clothes can increase scrotum temperature and may decrease the production of sperm.
  • Being overweight or obese can affect fertility in many ways.
    Changing these behaviours and male infertility treatment can help enhance the fertility of a man and must be adopted when a couple is trying to get pregnant.

Hormonal Issues

In some cases, the signs of infertility in men are caused by hormonal issues. Here are some hormonal disorders that can impair male infertility.

• Hyperprolactinemia: This happens when there are high levels of prolactin hormone present in the body. It decreases sperm production, reduces libido and may lead to impotence.

• Hypothyroidism: This affects very few males and can be the result of the consumption of iodine-rich diet. Low levels of thyroid in the body can lead to poor quality semen and other reproductive issues. Limiting the intake of iodine or including thyroid hormone replacement therapy can help increase sperm count.

• Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: This happens when the pituitary is suppressed due to the high amounts of adrenal androgens in the body. Some of the symptoms of the condition are low sperm count and sperm cell motility.

• Hypogonadotropic Hypopituitarism: The condition halts sperm development and leads to loss of cells from the testes.

• Panhypopituitarism: It occurs when the pituitary glands fail completely. Some of the male infertility symptoms include impotence, lethargy, decreased libido, loss of secondary sex characteristics, and undersized or normal testicles.

Physical Issues

There are several physical issues that can lead to male infertility. These problems arrest the process of sperm production or block the pathway through which sperm goes from the testes to the penis. Some of the physical problems that lead to male infertility are damaged Sperm Ducts, Varicocele, Torsion, Klinefelter’s Syndrome, Infection and Disease, and Retrograde Ejaculation. Some infections that can cause interference in sperm production are inflammation of the epididymis or testicles, and gonorrhea or HIV.

Causes Infertility in Men

Also Read: Causes and Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction

Sexual Problems

There are many sexual issues that have an impact on male fertility. These problems are generally both physical and psychological in nature.

Erectile dysfunction – This is a common condition and is also known as impotence. It is often the result of a single or a combination of many factors. It has been seen that men with ED also suffer from a psychological problem that can further damage the situation such as anxiety, guilt, and low self-esteem.

Some of the common reasons for impotence are high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, vascular disease, stress, trauma, pelvic surgery, hormone problems, and venous leak among others. There are many treatment methods available for ED depending on the cause.

Ejaculatory incompetence – It is a rare psychological situation where ejaculation does not happen during intercourse but happens during masturbation. It can be treated with behavioural therapy.

Premature ejaculation – It is the inability of the body to manage the ejaculatory response for a few seconds after penetration. The problem can be addressed through artificial insemination and other methods.

Also Read: Symptoms and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases 

It might require quite a few tests to find out the cause of infertility and choose the right male infertility treatment. The tests can be quite expensive. To diagnose fertility issues, your doctor may recommend general physical test and medical history, semen analysis, scrotal ultrasound, hormone testing, genetic testicular biopsy, post-ejaculation urinalysis among others.

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