Infertility is defined as the inability to conceive after having frequent, one year of unprotected sex. A diagnosis should be made to find out the cause of infertility. Fertility treatment can begin once the problem is pointed out. Different types of fertility drugs for men and women are available to help them conceive a bundle of joy.
If you have been trying to become pregnant for a year or more, and you are still receiving negative results on a home pregnancy test, then you should visit an infertility center for evaluation. Your negative pregnancy test may be a sign of infertility problem. If you are 35 years or older, you should consider the infertility test after six months of unprotected sexual intercourse. Infertility belongs to any abnormality in the female or male reproductive system.
Infertility in men:
The male reproductive system includes the testes, sex glands, scrotum, penis and spermatic ducts. The testicles are a pair of egg-shaped glands that are located next to the base of the penis on the outside of the body. The pair makes sperm and testosterone (a male sex hormone). It takes 70 days for sperm to fertilize an egg. A male fertility depends on the sperm quantity and sperm quality. If the quantity of sperm is less or the sperm are poor quality, it will be difficult or sometimes impossible to conceive for his partner. According to studies, it has been estimated that one in 20 men have some kind of fertility issue. It can be due to a low number of sperms a man ejaculate.
There are no signs of infertility in men. A man does not face the problem in erection and ejaculation during intercourse. Also, the semen appears normal, translucent to the naked eye. An infertility test can be performed in men when, after evaluating both partners, the problem has been found in the male partner.
Infertility in men caused by:
Poor sperm quality or low number of sperms
Hormone abnormalities that develop due to disease or use of medications with the potential to affect the hypothalamus or pituitary gland
Some disorders of male reproductive organs such as:
– Testicular cancer
– Genetic abnormalities
– A defect in particular hormone or hormone receptors
– Varicocele, a condition develops when the veins in a man’s testicles are too large
– Cryptorchidism, a common genital problem characterized by undescended testes
– Exposure to smoking, toxins, specific drugs, infection, and environmental hazards.
Exposure to radiations, X-rays and the overexposure to heat may also cause male infertility
In some cases, a man is born with the problem that affects his sperm production. Other times, the problems appear later in life due to disease and injuries. For example, cystic fibrosis (a hereditary disorder that majorly affects the endocrine glands).
Infertility in women:
In order to conceive, you need to have sexual intercourse, ovulate, and receive sperms to fertilize your eggs. Problems with ovulation mostly cause female fertility and the problem occur when one or more eggs are released from one of your ovaries. Pregnancy occurs when your eggs and your partner’s sperm meet in your Fallopian tube. The most common sign that a woman is not ovulating normally include irregularity in menstrual cycle or absence of menstrual periods.
The most common cause of disturbed ovulation is a polycystic syndrome, which develops when there is hormonal imbalance in the body. This imbalance interferes with ovulation and causes infertility in females.
Primary ovarian insufficiency is another problem that disturbs ovulation. The problem develops when a woman stops working normally before she turns 40. It is quite the same as early menopause.
Some of the less common causes that contribute to fertility problems in women are given below:
Blockage in the Fallopian tube due to endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, or surgery performed to treat ectopic pregnancy
Development of non-cancerous fibroids on the walls of the uterus and other physical problem with the uterus
Infertility is a condition of the reproductive system that affects both the man and woman. Once the diagnosis has been made, and the cause has been identified, you can begin infertility treatment. These fertility treatments provide a solution for people who wish to complete their families. Choose a fertility treatment option only after consultation with a fertility specialist. After necessary evaluation, your health care specialist will prescribe the best treatment for you. The right treatment could help you conceive your bundle of joy.
Depending on the cause of a couple’s infertility, your physician may recommend you medications, surgery lifestyle changes, assisted reproductive technology, or artificial insemination.
The following are the infertility medications that are usually prescribed to women, although in some cases they may also suggest for men:
Tamoxifen may be offered to women with ovulation problems
Clomifene encourages the monthly release of egg in females who are not able to ovulate
Metformin administered to women with polycystic ovary syndrome
Dopamine agonists and gonadotropins releasing hormones are other types of fertility drugs used to encourage ovulation in females.