Everyone loves sweets. They bring sweetness to our live, but some of us are prohibited to enjoy them. These are diabetics. Diabetes is generally referred as diabetes mellitus by the doctors. It is a metabolic disorder which is characterized by high blood sugar level.
Now diabetes is one of the commonest problems worldwide, especially in developed countries or developing countries which are adopting western culture. It was estimated that as of 2013 almost 382 million people had diabetes worldwide. If it is not treated or managed well on time it can result in serious health problems or may lead into death. In 2012-2013, almost 1.5 to 5.1 million deaths per year were reported per year. Here we are going to give a brief introduction about the causes, types, control and treatment of diabetes.
What Are Different Types Of Diabetes?
This is of two types basically; Type 1 and Type 2. Other types of diabetes are Gestational diabetes, which occur in about 2–10% of all pregnancies and get cured after delivery. In several aspects, this type of diabetes resembles with Type 2 diabetes.
Type 1 Diabetes: This type of diabetes is immune mediated as in this there is attack of T–cells to beta cells, which secretes Insulin. Insulin is a hormone which helps the glucose get into the cell so in the lack of insulin the glucose does not enter in the cell and blood glucose level get elevated. This type of diabetes can onset at any age of the individual as in childhood or in young adult.
Type 2 Diabetes: This type of diabetes is characterized by Insulin resistance means insulin is present in the body, but cells show no response to insulin. This is the most common type of diabetes. It gets started by reduced sensitivity of cells to insulin and can be reversed by medication. A number of lifestyle factors are responsible for this like poor diet, lack of physical activity, obesity, urbanization. Beside this genetic factor is also responsible.
Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes
The symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes develops slowly so early symptoms do not appear in this type of diabetes. The main symptoms of Type 2 diabetes include
• Eating too much food (polyphagia)
• Going for urine frequently (polyurea)
• Feeling thirsty again and again
• Blurred vision
• Itching around the genitals
• Wound get heal very slowly
• Often yeast infection
• Loss of weight
• Muscle weakness
• Feeling tired often
Read More: How to Manage Diabetes?
Diagnosis of Diabetes
Diabetes can be diagnosed by examination of blood glucose level before and after taking food. When once elevated blood glucose is diagnosed, proper control and treatment need to prevent the condition to become worse.
How to Treat Diabetes Type 2
There is no as such preventive measures for Type 1 Diabetes. It can be treated by giving external supply of insulin as there is no or less amount of insulin is present in the body. Type 2 diabetes can be well managed by dietary restriction or physical exercise, etc. To treat Type 2 Diabetes medicines are also present.
Medication to treat type 2 diabetes
Medicine present for the first line treatment of type 2 diabetes is Metformin as low rate of mortality is reported by this.Other medicines which control elevated glucose level includes the medicines which sensitize the cell for insulin like Rosiglitazone,Metformin, and the medicines that induces the secretion of insulin by β cells of pancreas, like Tolbutamide, Glipizide,Meglitinides, Tolzamid ,Acarbose. Beside all these chemical moieties some herbal medicines are also present to treat diabeties Type 2 like Ginkgo Biloba,Asian Ginseng,Stevia,Bilberry,Blueberry leaves,FenugreekOnion and Garlic ,GymnemBitter Melon,ocimum etc.
The medication is recommended in specific condition and any medication for diabetes is started only after consulting the doctor.
How to control Diabetes Type 2 by lifestyle modification
The person can control on diabetes progression by some modification in life style. The proper and healthy diet with some restriction can prevent diabetes, even can reverse also. The dietary restriction like tuna, salmon, and flax seeds as a source of healthy fat, high fibrous complex containing diet as brown rice or wild rice instead of whiterice, Whole-wheat pasta, roll oats, bran flakes, sweet potatoes, yams, fruit juice should be inculcated in a routine diet.The fixed timings and following diet plan can do wonders for the health. Smoking and alcohol make the condition worse, so should be avoided in diabetes. Proper exercise and physical activities like swimming, biking may control diabetes. Studies have revealed that exercise may increase insulin sensitivity in addition to reducing weight. Sugar-sweetened beverages should be avoided. Avoid stress as due to prolonged stress some hormone secrets in the body which increases the blood glucose level.
Awareness in the people for management of diabetes is very necessary for which health professional should come in front.
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