Ibuprofen 400 mg is a popular domestic and over-the-counter non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) for adults and children. It has been considered the safest conventional NSAID. This article summarizes Ibuprofen’s main pharmacological and therapeutic applications and side effects.   

About Ibuprofen 

Ibuprofen 400 mg tablet is the most used and frequently prescribed oral NSAID. Although its anti-inflammatory action may not that strong as other NSAIDs have. Ibuprofen is supplied as tablets with a concentration of 200 to 800 mg. The recommended dose is 400 to 800 mg thrice daily. The medicine is well absorbed orally; the peak effect is attained in 1 to 2 hours after oral administration. Old-age people have no significant effects on the elimination of Ibuprofen. People with renal impairment also experience no effect of the drug; rapid elimination still occurs due to metabolism. The administration of ibuprofen pill either under fasting conditions or immediately before meals yields a similar concentration-time profile.  

Therapeutic application   

A low dose of Ibuprofen is as effective as paracetamol and aspirin for medical conditions normally treated with over-the-counter medicines. Ibuprofen is useful in treating mild to moderate pain related to headaches, migraines, dysmenorrhea, dental pain, spondylitis management, osteoarthritis, soft tissue disorder, and rheumatoid arthritis.  

The main uses of Ibuprofen are as follows: 

    1. Patent Ductus arteriosus – This is a frequent complication in premature infants. So far, intravenous indomethacin is the first-line treatment. However, because of the side effects of indomethacin, other medicines, such as Ibuprofen, have been studied to close ductus arteriosus. Results showed that Ibuprofen is as effective as indomethacin.
    2. Rheumatoid and osteoarthritis – Ibuprofen is popular for its use in the management of numerous inflammatory, rheumatic, and musculoskeletal disorders because they are highly effective having minimal toxicities. Ibuprofen 2400 mg daily resulted in rapid improvement and complete resolution of gouty symptoms of gouty arthritis within 72 hours. In doses of approximately 2400 mg daily, it is equivalent to 4 g of aspirin in terms of anti-inflammatory effects. Higher doses, 1200 to 1600 mg daily, are as effective and well tolerated.
      Osteoarthritis is a common medication, and treatment involves NSAIDs, particularly Ibuprofen. Ibuprofen,  Diclofenac, and naproxen are equally effective for controlling joint symptoms. Ibuprofen is associated with gastric toxicity.
    1. Cystic Fibrosis – High dose of Ibuprofen has been shown to reduce lung inflammation. The risk of developing gastrointestinal effects from high-dose treatment is comparatively less in patients with cystic fibrosis.
    2. Orthostatic hypotension – Ibuprofen treats severe orthostatic hypotension, as with other NSAIDs. Toxic effects are less likely to happen at doses below 100mg/kg but can be life-threatening above 400 mg/kg. However, large doses do not indicate that the treatment is likely lethal.
    3. Dysmenorrhea, fever, and headache – Over-the-counter Ibuprofen helps to treat minor aches and pains, reducing fever, and alleviating symptoms of dysmenorrhea (one of the most common menstrual complaints). Over-the-counter Ibuprofen formulations are mainly used for acute indications, such as headaches, especially tension-type headaches.  
    4. Dental pain – Ibuprofen is considered one of the most effective and widely used NSAIDs in treating dental pain. Dentists have relied on Ibuprofen and other NSAIDs to treat acute and chronic orofacial pain. Generally, a dose of 400 mg control postoperative pain after the third molar surgery. A gel formulation of Ibuprofen 400 mg that applies topically provides faster relief and superior overall effectiveness in post-surgical dental pain. It has been reported that the combined use of paracetamol and Ibuprofen reduce very rapidly.
    5. Prevention of Alzheimer’s disease – Ibuprofen, when given in low doses over a long time, helps prevent Alzheimer’s disease. Further evaluation is needed to confirm results before Ibuprofen can be recommended for this indication.

Ibuprofen Side effects

NSAIDs such as Ibuprofen 400 mg tablet are widely used, frequently taken inappropriately and potentially dangerously. Nevertheless, Ibuprofen exhibits a few side effects. The main side effects include the effects on the gastrointestinal tract, renal function, and the coagulation system. Serious gastrointestinal issues require the withdrawal of treatment because of peptic ulcer and severe gastric pain or vomiting. In clinical trials, Ibuprofen could cause gastrointestinal bleeding, increasing the risk of gastric ulcers and damage, renal failure, heart failure, confusion, and bronchospasm. 

Other side effects of Ibuprofen that have been reported less frequently include headache, rashes, dizziness, blurred vision, fluid retention, and oedema. Patients who develop eye problems should discontinue the use of Ibuprofen. Effects on the kidney include acute renal failure and nephritic syndrome, but these rarely occur. Furthermore, you should not take NSAID medicine if you have an asthma attack, hives, or other allergic reaction to aspirin or other NSAID medicine. This medicine should not be given for pain before or after heart bypass surgery.


Ibuprofen is suitable for self-medication about its relatively wide spectrum of indications and good safety profile. Overall, the researchers have rated it as the safe conventional NSAID.

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