Premenstrual syndrome, also known as PMS, occurs with physical and psychological symptoms appearing about five days before menstruation ends within a few days after menses. Buy women’s health medicines online to improve PMS symptoms.

PMS has a prevalence of 20 to 30% and is associated with a significant reduction in quality of life and decreased work productivity. It is a condition with physical, emotional, and behavioural symptoms that increase in severity during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and disappear by menses. Symptoms are usually up to 14 days before the menses begin, causing life impairment, with irritability and anger being the most severe and longer-lasting symptoms. Buy women’s health medicines online to avoid complications associated with PMS.

Causes of PMS

The exact cause of premenstrual syndrome is still unknown, but several factors may contribute to this condition. These factors include:

  • Cyclic changes in hormones

According to health care experts, PMS develops in response to changing estrogen and progesterone hormone levels. These hormones fluctuate throughout a woman’s menstrual cycle when the hormones reach a peak and then decline rapidly, contributing to irritability, anxiety, and other mood changes.  

  • Chemical changes in the brain

Fluctuations of a certain brain chemical called serotonin play an important role in mood states and could trigger PMS symptoms. Insufficient serotonin may lead to premenstrual depression and sleep problems, fatigue, and food cravings.

  • Existing mental health problems

Having mental health issues, particularly depression or anxiety, could increase the risk of developing PMS or more severe forms of PMS. A family history of depression or bipolar disorder can also increase the risk.

Signs & Symptoms

The list of signs and symptoms of PMS is long, but most women only experience a few of these problems.

Physical symptoms include fatigue, headache, muscle/joint pain, weight gain, breast tenderness, constipation, diarrhoea, abdominal bloating, and alcohol intolerance

Emotional and behavioural symptoms include anxiety, depressed mood, mood swings, appetite changes, insomnia, poor concentration, changes in libido, and social withdrawal.

If you have not been able to manage these symptoms with lifestyle changes and the symptoms begin to affect your health and daily activities, see a health care specialist.

Treatment for PMS

Management of symptoms associated with PMS is usually performed stepwise from non-pharmacological strategies, antidepressants, and hormonal therapies, with the surgical option being the last. Women should have their symptoms confirmed by the doctor, and only when other underlying medical and psychiatric conditions have been addressed should treatment be started.

Women dealing with PMS should initially be investigated for other conditions such as hypothyroidism and anxiety disorders with referral to the appropriate medical therapy and adequate communication with healthcare professionals. PMS is often associated with sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress disorder, and therefore it is important to assess the full history of a patient.  

Non-pharmacological treatment

A course of cognitive behavioural therapy may introduce to address relaxation, stress management, and associated training has been reported to be effective in mild cases of PMS. Successful cognitive behavioural therapy could avoid pharmacotherapy as research reports showed a more sustainable but less rapid improvement with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).   

Complementary therapies

Research associated with complementary therapies for the treatment of PMS is limited. One research on the extract of the Agnus cactus fruit showed improvement in PMS symptoms in up to 52% of patients. However, the clinical trials are less in number. Alternative treatments such as dietary changes and relaxation may help reduce symptoms and improve overall health but have not been scientifically proven. You can buy women’s multivitamins supplements online to get rid of PMS symptoms.

Antidepressants

SSRIs, particularly paroxetine 20-30 mg, fluoxetine 20-60mg, sertraline 50-150 mg, and citalopram 20-40 mg, have significantly reduced the physical, behavioural, and emotional symptoms in the treatment of PMS. The short onset of action of SSRIs in patients means that these medicines can be taken two weeks before menses as continuously. Many studies state that intermittent SSRI use is as effective as continuous use in reducing irritability and other mood symptoms. Patients should be informed of side effects, including nausea, fatigue, insomnia, and sexual dysfunction, and that side effects are less with intermittent use. Unfortunately, the symptoms may recur following the discontinuation of SSRIs. Furthermore, there can be significant effects if used during pregnancy, even at et initial stages. Women who have failed two or more SSRIs trials should probably try hormonal therapy.

Estrogen 

Estrogen therapy that inhibits ovulation has been proposed as a therapy for the management of PMS. Estrogen is usually given in the form of a transdermal patch or subcutaneous implant and is an effective pharmacological agent in the treatment of PMS. Unless the patient has had a hysterectomy, receiving unopposed estrogen will require progestogen cover to prevent endometrial hyperplasia. Progestin therapy may cause PMS-like symptoms; therefore, the lowest dose is recommended.  

Oral contraceptives

Oral contraceptives containing drospirenone 3 mg and Ethinyl estradiol 20 mcg had shown positive results in improving PMS symptoms when hormones were administered for 24 days, followed by four days of inactive pills.  

Summary

PMS can be characterized as the event of gently to seriously bothersome physical and mental adverse effects intermittent with the premenstrual period of menses. Symptoms are often mild but can be severe enough to affect daily activities. Fluctuations in hormones may trigger symptoms. The effectiveness of serotonin reuptake inhibitors taken through the cycle is well established. You can buy women’s health supplements online and use it under a doctor’s guidance to relieve PMS symptoms.

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