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Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson's disease (PD) is an accelerating brain disorder that affects the body movement. Cells present in substantia nigra releases dopamine chemical that goes and attach with the dopamine receptors which controls the body movements. In this disease, cells in the brain die off and impair the body movements. Nearly one million people in the United States are living with Parkinson's disease.

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The cause is unknown, and although there is presently no cure. There are treatment options such as medication and surgery to manage its symptoms. The disease is incurable but there are medicines which can really improve the quality of life. The effect of the Parkinsonism disease reaches 1-2% in people over the age of 50.

Causes of Parkinson’s disease:

Normally, the neurons produce a vital brain chemical known as dopamine. It serves as a chemical messenger and controls the body movements. A lack of dopamine activity causes loss of body movements. In this disease, there is deterioration of neurons and there is less production of dopamine in brain. There are various factors which triggers this condition are

• Person above 50 years are more susceptible to this disease. It increases with the age
• Family history increases your chances to develop the disease
• Men are more prone to this disease than women
• Regular exposure to herbicides and pesticides increases the risk of disease

Signs and Symptoms:

It differs from person to person. During the initial phase of the disease, there is difficulty in completing day to day tasks. Presence of tremors or shaking in the limbs is generally observed. Poor posture, lose of balance and abnormal facial expressions. With progression, there is reduction in the body movements along with the muscle stiffness and speech problems. Antiparkinsonism drug therapy drastically reduces these symptoms and improves the way of living.

Some of the common signs are as mentioned below:

• Problems in maintaining the balance and walking
• Slow blinking
• Lack of facial expression
• Dementia
• Problems in movement
• Muscle pains
• Depression
• Fainting
• Hallucinations
• Difficulty in sitting and standing
• Memory loss
• Anxiety, stress, and tension
• Walking is accomplished with small and shuffling steps
• Bradykinesia

Adverse effects of the problem:

Here are the general problems that a long-suffering person with Parkinson’s disease:

• Disorders associated with sleep
• Depression 
• Stomach and bladder problems 
• Bowel problems
• Dementia and thinking difficulties
• Difficulty in swallowing
• Urinary problems
• Low sexual interest
• Pain and smell dysfunction

Preventive measures:

There is no way to prevent this disease as the cause of the disease is yet unknown, but according to many research studies, having drinks like soda, coffee and tea, that are rich in caffeine are good to reduce the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease.

Common Parkinson’s disease medicines:

The below mentioned medicines are online available also, so you can buy these anti parkinsonian medicines online from our website. 

• Syncapone
• Syndopa CR
• Syndopa
• Ropark
• Pramipex
• Requip
• Requip XL

Myths and facts:

Myth: PD can flare up unexpectedly

Fact: Not true, as the disease may go on progressing if proper treatment is not taken. Medications can help in controlling the progress of the disease.

Myth: levadopa medication stops working after a few days

Fact: this is a common misconception, but the truth is that levadopa can work effectively for many years but it should be known that it can only control the symptoms and not treat the disease.

Diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease:

Diagnosing the condition at early stages is bit difficult. Physician may ask your medical history and perform general tests. There is no precise test for the disease. For the evaluation of your brain activity PET scan can be done. CT scan uses x rays to get the images of brain. MRI gives clearer image of brain than CT scan. Sometimes anti Parkinsonism drug is given to assess the improvement of your signs and symptoms.

Treatment for Parkinson’s disease:

Parkinson’s disease has no cure, but the Antiparkinson drugs are used to relieve the symptoms and give support in maintaining the patient’s mobility and functioning capability as long as possible. It can be divided into five classes:

• Dopaminergic agents
• Anticholinergic drugs
• Dopamine receptor agonist
• MAO-B Inhibitors

Dopaminergic agents provide dopamine to the brain. Levodopa and Carbidopa are the drugs that have the ability to cross blood brain barrier and gets converted into dopamine in brain. Levodopa is a natural product present in plants and animals. When combined with carbidopa, there is prevention of premature conversion of dopamine outside your brain and more amount of drug is released inside the brain. Side effects are nausea, vomiting and postural hypotension. 

Other drugs falling in this category are Amantadine, Bromocriptine and Pergolide.

Anticholinergics are the drugs that reduce the excess amount of acetylcholine in brain and are effective in all the stages of the disease. It is used as adjuvant therapy and controls extra pyramidal side effects. It is contraindicated in the patients with hypertension, tachycardia and decreased kidney function. It is less effective than Levodopa. Beperdine and Procyclidine are the drugs falling in this category

Newer drugs have increased the activity of Levodopa. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors extend the effect of Levodopa by inhibiting the Catechol-O-methyltransferase activity and increase the plasma concentration and duration of Levodopa. Tolcapone and Entacapone are the drugs which are known to increase the dopamine content in brain and can swiftly cross the blood brain barrier. These drugs are contraindicated in the patients with the liver disease, hypertension and in pregnancy.

Dopamine agonists are the drugs which act directly on dopamine receptors and imitate the effect of dopamine in brain. Pramipexole and Ropinirole are the drugs that produce dopamine effects and balance the body movements. They produce hallucinations, nausea, vomiting, visual disturbances and headache like effects. It is used with caution in patients with dyskinesia, hypotension and renal impairment.

MAO-B Inhibitors are the drugs that prevent the breakdown of dopamine by inhibiting the enzyme monoamine oxidase B. Rasagiline and Selegiline are the drugs that fall under this category and they don’t offer any serious side effects.

Steps to improve the health:

Treatment of Parkinson’s disease needs a broad based management which includes patient and family education, general wellness, maintenance and exercise.

• Eat nutritious disease with more intakes of fiber content and omega 3 fatty acids. 
• It is very important for the person to walk properly by maintaining his balance. 
• Look straight while walking and try not to move quickly. 
• Avoid falls by removing rugs and a setting up a support next to the washroom. 
• Whatever the medication is prescribed by the Doctor it should be taken on regular basis. 
• If you experience any dizziness or drowsiness avoid driving and other motor activities which require alertness. 
• Avoid the intake of alcohol. 
• It is very important for a caregiver to keep environment positive and helps the patient in completing his or her daily activities. 
• Time to time monitoring of the patient is very important so regular check up with a physician is must. Do regular exercise, eat low cholesterol food, drink at least 8 glasses of water and keep yourself hydrated.

Important things to know:

1. The term parkinsonism is used for a motor syndrome, the main symptoms of the problem are:

• Tremor at rest
• Stiffness
• Slowing of movement 
• Postural instability

2. Parkinson’s diseasegot its name after the English doctor, James Parkinson who published it’s first detailed narrative in An Essay on the Shaking Palsy in 1817