Emesis or vomiting is the condition in which there is ejection of the stomach contents through the mouth. It is a body‘s response to eliminate toxic elements out of the body. Nausea is the unpleasant feeling that heads towards emesis. Emesis is the warning signal of the body. Emesis is commonly observed during migraine headaches and in pregnancy. Emesis is controlled by the chemoreceptor trigger zone also known as posttrauma. The brain receives signals from the gut nerves or other areas of the body; this centre gets stimulated that leads to nausea and vomiting. There are reverse peristaltic contractions of the abdominal muscles that expel the food contents out of the mouth. It is the most common response produced after surgeries or result of unwanted drug interactions.
Causes of emesis:
Emesis can occur due to numerous reasons mostly, it is taken as symptom produced due to some other disease some of them are:
• Food poisoning • Overeating • Gastro related problems • Migraine • Motion sickness • Morning sickness in pregnancy • Cancer chemotherapy • Peptic ulcers • Brain injury • Excess alcohol intake • Adverse reaction to some drugs
Signs and symptoms:
Symptoms of emesis are nausea (uneasiness), vomiting, abdominal pain and cramps along with diarrhea. At times, it is accompanied by high fever too. It can lead to dehydration and needs urgent medical attention.
Adverse effects of the problem:
Although vomiting can be cured with the help of prescription drugs, yet if the condition persists it may have sever adverse effect on the body.
Various associated complications of the vomiting on human body are as follows:
• Choking: it is a condition that can occur if the contents of the gastric enter into the respiratory tract. It doesn’t happen with everyone, but the person who is under the influence of alcohol or anesthesia are at risk of attaining this life-threatening condition • Dehydration and loss of basic electrolytes: in chronic emesis, there is the loss of electrolytes and water that are needed by the body. This all can lead to low chloride and potassium levels in your body and can cause metabolic acidosis • Hyper-emesis gravidarum: during preganacy hormonal changes can lead to sever throwing up, and this can show some dangers to the unborn child. • Mallory-weiss tear: in this condition, excessive vomiting erodes the esophageal lining, and you may get blood in your vomit • Boerhaave’s syndrome: chronic vomiting can lead to rupturing of the food pipe of oesophagus • Dental effects: acid present in the vomit can decay your gums and tooth enamel too.
You can use the following tips to prevent throwing up:
• Avoid triggers like strong odours • Avoid dairy products, citrus fruits and alcohol • Change your mind to something else by listening to music or watching tv • If you have na upset stomach avoid indulging in anything
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Myths and facts:
Myth: you need medicine to stop vomiting
Fact: it is not true as the body know what is best for it and is eliminating unwanted things out of the body. Do not rush to take the medicine as vomiting heals on its own.
Myth: vomiting two to three times is dangerous
Fact: throwing up two-three times in a day is considered ok, and the condition should be cured within 12-24 hours, but if vomiting persists even after a whole day, then you need to visit doctor
Diagnosis of emesis:
If vomiting persists for more than 24 hours, and there is severe abdominal pain and discomfort along with the blood in the expelled contents. There is need to consult doctor to stop recurrent episodes of vomiting. The physician may examine the hydration status of the mouth, teeth and tongue. A various test such as urea, electrolytes, and liver function tests are done to find the cause. Doctor may perform rectal analysis test to get the status of constipation. Other tools such as x- rays, ct scan of the abdomen can also be done to investigate the cause of emesis. Effective diagnosis is very important to get the best possible treatment for nausea and vomiting.
Treatment for emesis:
The treatment for emesis is a blend of self-care measures and use of antiemetic drug therapy. The goal of the treatment is to find and decrease the vomiting sessions, replenishing the body by compensating the loss of fluid and electrolytes and eliminate nausea. Antiemetic can be classified as first line and second line drugs.
First line drugs are
• Metoclopramide is given in gastric irritation and gastric bowel obstruction • Haloperidol is given in the emesis induced by the drugs or chemotherapy • Phenergan is an antihistaminic drug that is useful in nausea in motion sickness • Prochlorperazine is prescribed in the emesis induced by pregnancy, migraine headaches or cancer therapy
Second-line drugs are
• Dexamethasone a potent steroid that prevents chemotherapy-induced emesis • Cyclizine prevents the vomiting centre from receiving messages and is useful in motion sickness and emesis induced by the surgery • Domperidone suppresses nausea and vomiting and is useful in the gastrointestinal induced emesis • Pantoprazole is the proton pump inhibitor and reduces the formation of acid in the body. These antacid drugs are used in the food allergy and pregnancy induced emesis • Ondansetron stops the vomiting by deactivating the receptors present in the trigger zone. It is given in the postoperative nausea and vomiting and hyperemesis gravidarum in pregnancy
Side effects of the antiemetic drugs are constipation, fatigue, weakness, indigestion and muscular spasms. Buy these drugs for anti-emesis online at very cheap rates from various online pharmacies.
Steps to improve the health:
There are self-care strategies that can help you in treating nausea and vomiting such as:
• Don’t drink or eat anything immediately after you vomit. Give rest to your stomach for 24 hours • After you can bear clear liquid for more than a few hours, one can take small amounts of bland foods • Brat diet is taken after the last period of vomiting that occurred 24 to 48 hours before. Bananas, rice, applesauce or dry toast • To compensate the fluid loss, lemon water and oral rehydration solution can be taken after every one hour. It helps in restoration of fluids and essential electrolytes in the body. • Natural alternatives like ginger, peppermint and lemon balm tea eases the discomfort associated with nausea in morning sickness.
Important thing to know:
• Take good amount of fluid during vomiting sessions so as to maintain water loss
• Avoid milk based products as it is difficult to digest • With vomiting, abdominal pain, bloating, vomiting, and diarrhea may even occur.