Antiandrogens are the drugs that obstruct the effect of androgens or male sex hormones. It disables the binding of testosterone and reduces the overall production of testosterone in the body. There is a wide array of drugs present in the market that are used to treat disorders occurring due to excess production of testosterone. They are most widely employed in hyperandrogenism in women and prostate cancer in men. Anti-androgens is the well-known therapy option in the treatment of Prostate Cancer
Applications of Anti androgens
Antiandrogens are employed in various disease and disorders. The most common conditions are explained below:
- Prostate Cancer - It is a cancer of the Prostate gland present in men. The prostate is a tiny gland of the male reproductive gland and is present in front of the rectum and under the bladder. In this gland, milky fluid is produced that protects and nourishes the sperm. During ejaculation, there is secretion of the milky fluid that delivers the sperm into the urethra and leaves the body through the penis. Cancer of the prostate takes place when there are slight changes takes place in the size and shape of prostate glands. It keeps on accelerating but at a slow scale and can be treated at early stages. In advanced stages, it can’t be cured. Anti-androgen drugs control the production of androgen hormone in some cases and they also doesn’t allow the binding of androgen to the cancer cell’s androgen receptor. This way, in the initial stages it decreases the growth of prostate tumor
- Hyper sexuality - is a condition in which there is abrupt or recurrent sexual urge or desire. It can also be termed as Excessive sexual drive or Masturbation. In this, an individual is obsessed with sexual thoughts and feelings and it can affect your health, psychology, and other parts of life. Anti-androgens directly act with the Androgen hormone and keep control of the effects that are responsible for sexual urge or desire
- Gender reassignment – this is a procedure in which alteration of genital organs is done. The physical and biological characteristics are changed according to the individual’s choice. Intersex abnormalities in newborn babies can be treated by this procedure. It helps to allocate a particular gender. Some people suffer from gender identity disorder and they want to change their gender. This is most commonly seen in men than women. Reshaping of genital tissues like Penis removal and vaginal construction by skin grafting technique is done. Anti-androgen therapy is recommended for male-to-female transsexuals before the Gender reassignment surgery
- Paraphilias: it is a condition in which there is an atypical and extreme sexual behavior and involves unusual objects, children, tricks, or behavior. This could be a result of childhood trauma or sexual abuse. Anti-androgen decreases the production of Androgen and controls unusual sexual activity
- Hyperandrogenism – in this, there are abnormal and extreme levels of male sex hormones such as Androgen that can occur in males and females. There is excessive growth of body hair (hirsutism), increased libido, infertility, obesity, and increased androgen levels. Decreasing androgen levels in the body can help in restraining the sexual desire or activity
Anti androgen drugs at a glance
These are the drugs that control the androgen secretion in the body. They can be classified into two types: steroidal and non-steroidal anti-androgens.
Non steroidal anti androgens
Flutamide is a nonsteroidal anti androgen drug that fights with testosterone and doesn’t allow them to bind with androgen receptors present in Prostate gland. This way, it avoids the growth of prostate cancerous cells. Over the counter, is also a part of hormonal replacement therapy used in the treatment of transsexual women. Flutamide is also recommended for Hyperandrogenism conditions like Acne or hirsutism. It shows drug interaction with Warfarin and Phenytoin so simultaneous administration of these drugs should be avoided
Nilutamide is another anti androgen drug that blocks the androgen actions by getting attached at the site where this hormone is released. This all stops the growth of malignant tumors in prostate glands. It is given in surgical castration for the treatment of prostate cancer. It has counter-drug interaction with a Theophylline drug used in the treatment of Asthma
Bicalutamide is another drug falling in the same above category of drugs. It acts via the same mechanism and is given in the advanced stage of Prostate Cancer. Specifically indicated in combination with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analog in the treatment of Prostate gland
Leuprolide and Goserelin are the drugs that look like LH-RH (luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone) that has a role in decreasing the levels of testosterone in the bloodstream. They are indicated in the treatment of Prostate Cancer. They are also given to adjourn puberty in transgender youth until they reach a certain age suitable for hormone replacement therapy
Abarelix and Triptorelin are other drugs that act in the same way as Leuprolide. They are given to patients with Prostate cancer who cannot take surgery or other treatment. Abarelix interacts with heart medicines like Procainamide, Amiodarone, Sotalol, and Dofetilde.
Steroidal Anti androgen
Cyproterone Acetate is a steroidal drug that inhibits the production of Testosterone which is needed by the cancerous cells for their growth and proliferation. It is indicated in men who have increased sexual desire and sexual deviation (Hypersexuality). It interacts with various drugs such as Ketoconazole, Itraconazole, Clotrimazole, Phenytoin, and Rifampicin
Side effects of Antiandrogens
The common side effects experienced with these drugs are as follows:
- Mood swings and depression in patients suffering from Prostate Cancer
- Muscular pain in chest, groin and legs
- Abdominal pain and discoloration of the eyes are the few signs of Hepatotoxicity shown by Cyproterone acetate, Flutamide, Nilutamide, and Bicalutamide
- Pregnancy-related complications can occur due to Cyproterone acetate and Flutamide
- Indigestion, diarrhea and constipation
- Gynecomystia is generally shown by the drug Flutamide
What are the most common antiandrogens used?
There are currently six approved antiandrogen drugs, including bicalutamide, darolutamide, flutamide, apalutamide, nilutamide, and enzalutamide.
How long does an antiandrogen medicine take to work?
An individual must take antiandrogen medicine to block testosterone and its effects. Some may also take other medicines, including progesterone. An individual may notice physical effects a few weeks after beginning the treatment, such as decreased libido.
What is the best antiandrogen?
For adults with bodies that make larger quantities of testosterone, the most commonly prescribed antiandrogens in the US are spironolactone, bicalutamide, and finasteride.
What happens when you take antiandrogen medicines?
Antiandrogens block the effects of androgens, such as testosterone. They do this by adhering to proteins called androgen receptors. They adhere to these receptors so that androgens can adhere to them.
What is new-generation antiandrogen medicine?
Darolutamide and Apalutamide are new-generation antiandrogen medicines. These are also called second-generation antiandrogen drugs developed after the first-generation antiandrogens, which include nilutamide, bicalutamide, and flutamide.
Do antiandrogens delay hair growth?
Yes, topical androgens can benefit people with hair loss. They block testosterone production, preventing DHT/5 reductase from reaching your hair follicles.
What is the most crucial androgen hormone?
Androgens belong to the group of sex hormones that provide men with their male characteristics. The most important hormone in men is testosterone, mainly formed in the testes.
How can I lower androgens naturally?
- Drinking hot or iced tea may help treat PCOS symptoms in women. Spearmint tea has been shown to have antiandrogen effects in females with PCOS.
- Marjoram herb is known to restore hormone balance and regulate the menstrual cycle.
How to reduce androgens fast?
Strength training lowers high levels of androgens in women through significant body composition changes.
Is a prescription required for antiandrogens?
Antiandrogens are available only with doctor’s prescription because antiandrogens are considered to be potentially harmful if not under the supervision of a licensed health care professional.
Is it OK to purchase antiandrogens online?
It is all available online with the advantage that the online pharmacy will give you the lowest prices. Choose a reliable pharmacy to shop online.